How to Stop Nosebleeds

*Buzzzz* My pager buzzes with the following message: “patient in 233 having a severe nosebleed, come now.” The patient is a 72yo woman on aspirin (an antiplatelet drug) and warfarin (an anticoagulant). When I walk into the room, multiple staff members are surrounding the patient. One is holding gauze under her nostrils as bright red blood is dripping down. I see that the patient is breathing normally and thinking clearly and is not in distress.

I instructed the nurses to hold firm pressure at the tip of her nose for 5 minutes without letting go. Also to keep the patient’s chin close to her chest in order to prevent blood from going into her trachea. Instead any blood would drip back into her esophagus or out her mouth. However, sensing the nurse’s reluctance, I placed my gloved hand over the patient’s nose and pinched firmly for 5 entire minutes without stopping. It must be a firm hold, to the point of slight discomfort to the patient. During the hold, the patient had some clots come out of her mouth during the first minute or so, but the bleed seemed to be slowing down. I timed the 5 minutes on the wall clock and then examined the patient’s nose.

When I let go, there was no further obvious bleeding. On exam with a light, there was an oozing spot visible in her right nostril. I ordered oxymetazoline (Afrin) nasal spray and had her RN apply two sprays to each nostril in order to cause constriction of the blood vessels in the patient’s nose. The patient had no further bleeding.

Most (about 90%) of the time, epistaxis (aka a nosebleed) comes from the front or anterior part of the nose; specifically, from a group of blood vessels called Kiesselbach’s plexus, as shown in the photo below. Compressing them can stop this kind of bleed.

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If a nosebleed happens to you or a loved one at home,

  • 1. the first step is to make sure that the person bleeding has a pulse, is breathing, speaking, thinking clearly and able to protect their airway; if any doubt on their ability to protect their airway, call 911.
  • 2. The next step for those who are safely protecting their airway is to begin by applying firm pressure as such, with the chin tucked close to the chest:
Anterior nasal pressure and chin tuck. Copyright Medicine Simply.
Anterior pressure, side view. Copyright Medicine Simply.
  • 3. Do not let go for a minimum of 5 minutes.

During the process of holding you may see some clots come out of your mouth or feel them go down your throat. However, if you continue to have unchanged, profuse bleeding, in particular down the back of the throat, despite firm anterior pressure, call 911 and go to your closest hospital emergency department as you may have a posterior nasal bleed. Posterior bleed tend to be dramatic–they don’t drip, they run like an open faucet. For anterior bleeds, however, firm pressure should noticeably dampen the bleed.

  • 4. After 5 full minutes of firm pressure, let go and inspect the nose for bleeding. If any further bleeding, apply two sprays of Afrin to each nostril and continue to hold firm pressure for another 5 to 10 minutes. If after 15 total minutes the bleeding has not stopped, seek emergency medical care, as you may need nasal cautery or packing by an ENT or emergency room physician or advanced provider.
  • 5. If bleeding has stopped but there is some oozing at the source, it is reasonable to apply two sprays of Afrin in the nare. Watch carefully for at least 30 minutes to ensure no recurrence of bleeding. Make note that Afrin is a great vasoconstrictor and decongestant but it should only be used for more than three days in a row as it can cause rebound nasal congestion.
  • 6. Once the bleeding stops, care for the site of bleeding by gently applying an antibiotic ointment such as bacitracin three times daily for three days.

If nosebleeds happen to you frequently, discuss them with your primary care provider (PCP) in order to discover why they may be happening.

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PCPs, PPOs, and Premiums: De-coding Health Insurance Terminology

Hello, blogosphere. In light of changes with Marketplace insurance plans (i.e. Affordable Care Act, or “Obamacare,” plans), the purpose of today’s post will be to define all of the terminology commonly used regarding health insurance.

I will be using a fictional family, the Waytes, for illustration purposes. The Waytes family consists of husband Bill, wife Sandra, and young children Timmy and Susie.

Healthcare Provider (or Provider): your physician (medical doctor, MD or DO), nurse practitioner (NP), physician assistant (PA), podiatrist (DPM), or other similar professional who provides you with medical care.

Primary Care Provider (PCP) vs. Specialist: A PCP is a physician or other provider who is your “main” doctor or provider. He or she is a generalist and can evaluate and address most of your healthcare needs. When you have a more complex health issue, your PCP will refer you to a specialist, who is more extensively trained in a particular field.

  • Sandra and Bill regularly go to see their PCP, Dr. Garcia, an MD who is board-certified in family practice. She performs their annual wellness exams, coordinates immunizations, manages Bill’s hypertension, and prescribes antibiotics for Sandra when she has a UTI. Sometimes, however, Dr. Garcia consults specialist providers for the Waytes’ care, for example referring Sandra to dermatologist for a funny-looking mole.

Referral: the directing of a patient to a medical specialist by a PCP or other provider, usually requiring documentation of such (eg. a paper slip signed by the provider). Some plans require you to have a referral from your PCP to see a specialist, while others do not.

Inpatient vs. Outpatient: you become an inpatient when you are admitted to the hospital. You are an outpatient at any other point, including while being seen in the emergency room before admission, and while having outpatient surgery (i.e. not spending the night in the hospital). If you go to see your PCP and then go home, you are an outpatient.

Coverage: when a bill is “covered” by the insurance, that means that it will be paid for by the insurance, after your deductible is met (see below for “deductible”).

Claim: a bill for medical services. The provider usually sends the claim directly to the insurance company.

Subscriber vs. Member: a subscriber is the policyholder (can be a person or an organization) whereas a member is anyone who is covered under the plan.

  • Sandra receives great insurance benefits from her job, so she signs up for a health insurance plan through her employer that will cover her spouse, Bill, and their dependent children. So Sandra would be the subscriber, and Sandra, Bill, and the kids would all be members. Alternatively, Sandra’s employer may be the subscriber, and she, Bill, and the kids still members.

In-Network vs. Out-of-Network: insurance plans make contracts with a wide range of providers, hospitals, labs, radiology facilities, and pharmacies in which they agree on special rates and assure a certain quality of care—these providers, hospitals, etc. are “in-network” with those insurance plans. All others are “out-of-network” and may charge higher rates. The member will have to pay whatever the difference with out-of-network costs (or, in the case of an HMO, the entire cost. See below).

PPO or an HMO? A preferred provider organization (PPO) plan allows more flexibility in choosing providers. With a PPO, a member can visit an out-of-network provider and still receive coverage. Staying in-network, however, provides more consistent coverage. A health maintenance organization (HMO) plan, on the other hand, is more restrictive and will only cover in-network providers.

  • Sandra thinks her insurance benefits are “really great,” so they are more likely a PPO than an HMO. She and Bill appreciate being able to see a wider range of providers.
  • PPOs are also known as Point-of-Service (POS) plans
  • HMOs are also known as Exclusive Provider Networks (EPOs)
  • HMOs will generally cover out-of-network care in the case of an emergency

Private vs. Hospital-based: when a provider has a private practice, claims will be sent to the insurance from his or her office (eg. The Office of Dr. Patel). When a provider is a hospital-employee and is seeing a patient at that hospital’s clinic, claims will usually be sent from that hospital (eg. Baxter Memorial Hospital).

  • This is relevant especially for HMO plans were the hospital might be in-network, but providers are not, so you can go see Dr. Patel when he staffs Baxter Memorial Hospital’s diabetes clinic, but you cannot see him in his private office.

What is a premium? This is what you pay every month in order to maintain your insurance coverage.

What is cost sharing? These are costs, other than your premium, that you will have to pay in order to use medical services. These cost sharing methods include deductibles, copays, and coinsurances (see below).

What is a deductible? This is the dollar amount of out-of-pocket expenses that your insurance requires that you pay before they will begin to pay for claims.

  • Sandra and Bill’s deductible is $500. That means that they will have to pay the first $500 of medical bills before their insurance will begin its regular coverage. So when Timmy falls and breaks his arm at the beginning of the year and goes to see an orthopedist in his private office for diagnosis (involving a consult, x-rays) and treatment (a cast), Sandra and Bill will have to pay the first $500 of bills before their insurance company starts to pay.

What is a copay? A copay is a fixed dollar amount that you pay every time you use a particular type of healthcare service.

  • Sandra has a $10 copay to see her PCP and a $25 copay to see a specialist. She has a $10 copay to fill a prescription for a generic drug and a $30 or $50 copay for a brand-name drug (depending on it’s “tier,” which is a category of price difference determined by the insurance company for drug coverage).

What is a coinsurance? This is the percentage of a medical bill that you will have to pay. Usually, an insurance company does not bill both a copay and a coinsurance for the same service, so it would apply to services outside of outpatient physician consults and drugs.

  • Sandra and Bill have a 20% coinsurance for lab tests, diagnostic imaging (i.e. x-rays, MRIs, CTs), and inpatient services. If little Susie is hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation, Bill and Sandra will have to pay for 20% of the bills, up to a certain maximum level.

What is an out-of-pocket maximum? The most you will ever have to pay out of pocket for deductible and coinsurance in a given year. Once this maximum is reached, the insurance company will pay 100% of the covered costs. This maximum does not include premiums, copays, or services that are not covered (eg. out-of-network services with an HMO plan).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (aka “Obamacare”, abbreviated here as ACA): a federal statue signed into law by President Obama in March 2010. The law expanded public and private insurance coverage and introduced mandates, subsidies, and health exchanges. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the ACA in June 2012, but held that states cannot be forced to participate in the ACA’s Medicaid expansion. As a result, changes vary by state.

  • Click for the full law
  • Nice video summarizing the ACA by the Kaiser Family Foundation

Some changes proposed by the ACA include: Read more “PCPs, PPOs, and Premiums: De-coding Health Insurance Terminology”